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### Grammar, Punctuation, and Style1.45 Dependent and Independent Clauses

#### DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT CLAUSES

An Independent Clause contains a subject and predicate, and expresses a complete thought:

Example: Joey rode the bus.

A Dependent Clause, also called a fragment, contains a subject and predicate, but does NOT express a complete thought:

Example: When Joey rode the bus.

#### COMPOUND SENTENCES

Two Independent Clauses can be joined together to make a Compound Sentence. A common error when joining two independent clauses is the comma splice.

Example: Joey rode the bus, Tom took the train.

We need to add a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so), a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore), or a semicolon to fix this error:

Example: Joey rode the bus, but Tom took the train. (coordinating conjunction)
Joey rode the bus; Tom took the train. (semicolon)
Joey rode the bus; however, Tom took the train. (conjunctive adverb)

Another way to fix this error is to make each independent clause a complete sentence

Example: Joey rode the bus. Tom took the train.

#### COMPLEX SENTENCES

A complex sentence has a dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction, i.e. while, although, because, whereas, since, as, though) connected to an independent clause.

Example: While Joey rode the bus, Tom took the train.
Joey rode the bus whereas Tom took the train.

#### COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES

A compound-complex sentences has two independent clauses connected to one (or more) dependent clauses.

Example: While Joey rides the bus, Tom rides the train, and Bob likes to walk.

Directions: Correct the following sentences by choosing the best answer. Write which convention you used in each correction (coordinating conjunction, semicolon, subordinating conjunction, or conjunctive adverb), and what kind of sentence it is (compound, complex, or compound/complex). Write three more example sentences for each type of sentence: compound, complex, or compound-complex.
 Q 1: Fred goes to tap dance classes George takes karate classes.Fred goes to tap dance classes, George, takes karate classes.Fred goes to tap dance classes, while George takes karate classes.Fred goes to tap dance classes, George takes karate classes.Fred, who goes to tap dance classes; George takes karate classes. Q 2: It was quite cold outside, I didn't wear my coat.Although it was quite cold outside, I didn't wear my coat.It was quite cold outside so; I didn't wear my coat.It was quite cold outside I didn't wear my coat.It was quite cold outside since I didn't wear my coat. Q 3: Paul studied for his biology test he did not pass the test.Although Paul studied for his biology test, however, he did not pass the test.Paul studied for his biology test: he did not pass the test. Paul studied for his biology test, he did not pass the test.Paul, who studied for his biology test, he did not pass the test. Q 4: Sue likes to knit Joan likes to sew.Sue likes to knit. Joan likes to sew.Sue likes to knit: Joan likes to sew.Sue, likes to knit; Joan likes to sewSue, like Joan, likes to knit and sew. Q 5: Wendy baked cookies, Mark baked a pie.Wendy, who baked cookies, but Mark baked a pie.Wendy baked cookies; Mark baked a pie.Wendy baked cookies Mark baked a pie.Wendy, baked cookies, Mark, baked a pie. Q 6: The governor passed a new law we have to wear helmets when bike riding.The governor passed a new law, we have to wear helmets when bike riding.Since the governor passed a new law, we have to wear helmets when bike riding.The governor, passed a new law, and we have to wear helmets when bike riding.The governor passed a new law because we have to wear helmets when bike riding. Q 7: Greg likes to eat pizza, John likes to eat fish, Sue likes to eat chocolate.Greg, likes to eat pizza, John, likes to eat fish, and Sue, likes to eat chocolate.Greg, who likes pizza, John likes to eat fish, but Sue likes to eat chocolate.Greg likes to eat pizza, John likes to eat fish; Sue likes to eat chocolate.While Greg likes to eat pizza, John likes to eat fish, but Sue likes to eat chocolate. Q 8: Don goes to Douglas Elementary, Fran goes to Farmington Elementary.Don goes to Douglas Elementary Fran goes to Farmington Elementary.Don goes to Douglas Elementary; however, Fran goes to Farmington Elementary.Don goes to: Douglas Elementary; Fran goes to Farmington Elementary.Don, who goes to Douglas Elementary, while Fran goes to Farmington Elementary. Question 9: This question is available to subscribers only! Question 10: This question is available to subscribers only!