Since the war the united North and South have grown and prospered as never before. At the South many new and flourishing towns and cities have sprung up. Mines of coal and iron have been opened, hundreds of cotton-mills and factories have been built, and long lines of railroads have been constructed. At the West changes equally great have taken place. Cities have risen up in the wilderness, mines of silver and gold have been opened, and immense farms and cattle ranches[farms at the West for raising horses and cattle, or sheep.] produce food enough to feed all America. Three great lines of railroads have been built which connect with railroads at the East, and stretch across the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Into that vast country beyond the Mississippi hundreds of thousands of industrious people are moving from all parts of the earth, and are building homes for themselves and for their children.
Four hundred years have gone by since the first civilized man crossed the ocean and found this new world which we call America. We are now about to celebrate that discovery made by Columbus, not only in the schools throughout the country, but by a great fair—called the "World's Columbian Exposition"—to be held at Chicago; and we shall invite all who will to come from all parts of the globe and join us in the celebration. On one of the two great seals of the United States a pyramid is represented partly finished. That pyramid stands for our country. It shows how much has been done and how much still remains to be done. The men whose lives we have read in this little book were all builders. Little by little they added stone to stone, and so the good work grew. Now they have gone, and it is for us to do our part and make sure that the pyramid, as it rises, shall continue to stand square, and strong, and true.
4 Seals: the first great seal, having the eagle and the Latin motto "E Pluribus Unum," meaning "Many in One,"—or one nation made up of many states,—was adopted June 20, 1782. The spread eagle signifies strength; the thirteen stars above his head, and the thirteen stripes on the shield on his breast, represent the thirteen original states; the olive branch, held in the eagle's right talon, shows that America seeks peace, while the bundle of arrows in his left talon shows that we are prepared for war. This seal is used in stamping agreements or treaties made by the United States with other nations, and also for other important papers.
The second great seal, adopted at the same time, was never used. It was intended for stamping the wax on a ribbon attached to a treaty or other important paper, thus making a hanging seal. The Latin motto "Annuit Cœptis," above the all-seeing eye looking down with favor on the unfinished pyramid, means "God has favored the Work." The date MDCCLXXVI, or 1776, marks the Declaration of Independence. The Latin motto at the bottom, "Novus Ordo Seclorum," means "A New Order of Ages"—or a new order of things, such as we have in this New World of America.
Directions: Answer the following multiple choice questions. Also, answer the following questions on a sheet of paper: