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Probability

Tossing a coin, keeping an object in a box, selecting a student from a group of students , rolling a dice are all processes which have a number of possible outcomes . The two possible outcomes of tossing a coin are heads and tails, rolling a dice has six outcomes, a student can be selected from a group of students in many ways. So to arrive at an answer its best to follow the rules of probability.

Notations:

If n belongs to N ( N = { set of natural numbers} ) then the product 1x2x3x4x.....n is denoted by n! and read as n factorial .

Fundamental theorems of probability

If one thing can be done in m different ways and the other thing can be done in n different ways independent of the first then either of them can be done in ( m+n) different ways.
```eg :-a) select a king or a queen from a pack of 52 cards

a king can be selected in 4 ways . m= 4
a queen can be selected in 4 ways . n= 4
so either can be selected in (4 + 4) = 8 ways ```
2. Fundamental principle of multiplication:
If one thing can be done in m different ways and another thing can be done in n different ways independent of the first then both the things can be done in mxn different ways .
```eg:- a) select a king and a queen from a pack of 52 cards

a king can be selected in 4 ways . m=4
a queen can be selected in 4 ways . n=4
so both can be selected in (4x4) = 16 ways

```

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High School Mathematics - 213.1 Probability Introduction

 Q 1: The rules of probability apply toset of rational numbersset of irrational numbersset of natural numbersset of whole numbers Q 2: Which are the two fundamental theorems of probabilityneitherfundamental principles of addition onlyfundamental principles of addition and fundamental principles of multiplicationfundamental principles of multiplication only Q 3: In how many ways can a jack or a queen be selected from a pack of 52 cards ?28164 Q 4: In how many ways can a jack and a king be selected from a pack of 52 cards?8163264 Question 5: This question is available to subscribers only! Question 6: This question is available to subscribers only!