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High School Mathematics - 2
13.1 Probability Introduction

Probability


Tossing a coin, keeping an object in a box, selecting a student from a group of students , rolling a dice are all processes which have a number of possible outcomes . The two possible outcomes of tossing a coin are heads and tails, rolling a dice has six outcomes, a student can be selected from a group of students in many ways. So to arrive at an answer its best to follow the rules of probability.

Notations:

If n belongs to N ( N = { set of natural numbers} ) then the product 1x2x3x4x.....n is denoted by n! and read as n factorial .

Fundamental theorems of probability

  1. Fundamental principle of addition:
    If one thing can be done in m different ways and the other thing can be done in n different ways independent of the first then either of them can be done in ( m+n) different ways.
    eg :-a) select a king or a queen from a pack of 52 cards  
    
                               a king can be selected in 4 ways . m= 4
                               a queen can be selected in 4 ways . n= 4
                               so either can be selected in (4 + 4) = 8 ways 
  2. Fundamental principle of multiplication:
    If one thing can be done in m different ways and another thing can be done in n different ways independent of the first then both the things can be done in mxn different ways .
    eg:- a) select a king and a queen from a pack of 52 cards 
    
                               a king can be selected in 4 ways . m=4
                               a queen can be selected in 4 ways . n=4
                               so both can be selected in (4x4) = 16 ways
    
    
    


Q 1: Which are the two fundamental theorems of probability
fundamental principles of multiplication only
fundamental principles of addition and fundamental principles of multiplication
neither
fundamental principles of addition only

Q 2: Probability is a concept which is arrived at by
guessing
formulae's
logical thinking
estimation

Q 3: In how many ways can a jack or a queen be selected from a pack of 52 cards ?
8
2
4
16

Q 4: 0! =
2
0
1
infinity

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Question 6: This question is available to subscribers only!


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